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Hand sanitizers were first introduced in 1966 in medical settings such as hospitals and healthcare facilities. The product was popularized in the early 1990s.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is more convenient compared to soap and water in most situations in the healthcare setting.Among healthcare workers, it is generally more effective and better tolerated than soap and water.Hand washing should still be carried out if contamination can be seen or following the use of High traffic areas
Hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol or contains a "persistent antiseptic" should be used.Alcohol rubs kill many different kinds of bacteria, and tb bacteria. They also kill many kinds of viruses, including the flu the common Cold and covid , and Hiv
90% alcohol rubs are more effective against viruses than most other forms of hand washing. Isopropyl alcohol will kill 99.99 % or more of all non-spore forming bacteria in less than 30 seconds, in the laboratory and on people.
The alcohol in hand sanitizers may not have the 10–15 seconds exposure time required to denature proteior concentrations (below 60%).
For health care settings like hospitals and clinics, optimum alcohol concentration to kill bacteria is 70% to 95%. Products with alcohol concentrations as low as 40% are available in American stores.
Alcohol rub sanitizers kill most bacteria, and fungi, and stop some viruses. Alcohol rub sanitizers containing at least 70% alcohol kill 99.9% of the bacteria on hands 30 seconds after application and 99.99% to 99.999% in one minute.
For health care, optimal disinfection requires attention to all exposed surfaces such as around the fingernails, between the fingers, on the back of the thumb, and around the wrist. Hand alcohol should be thoroughly rubbed into the hands and on the lower forearm for a duration of at least 30 seconds and then allowed to air dry.